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History

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A kaleidoscope of history and legends

The Sultanate of Oman is a country of breath-taking natural beauty, interwoven with a kaleidoscope of history and legends. As the oldest independent state in the Arab World, Oman has embraced modernisation and progress while retaining the core aspects of its culture and heritage – making it the perfect travel destination for those seeking an authentic Arabian experience.

The Sultanate of Oman is unique in its nature and its rich history of events and stories written in books and relics that tell of heroism and depth of communication with other civilizations, as being one of the oldest independent countries in the Arab world, Oman has succeeded in blending modernity and heritage while preserving the essential aspects of its culture and history. This made Omanthe ideal tourist destination for those wishing to visit countries that combine tradition and modernity at the same time.
Oman’s strategic location in the south of the Arabian Peninsula has played a prominent role in gaining its position and in contacting with ancient civilizations.
The oldest evidence indicates that the site of Al-Wattiain Muscat is one of the oldest settlements that indicate human presence in the world and dates back to 10,000 years.
Among the most important civilizations that their evidence remains are the civilizations of Bat, Al-Khattm, Wadi Al-Ain, and its tombs, Which dates back to the Bronze Age and Umm an-Nar civilization, between (2700-2200 BC).
In southern Oman, ancient civilizations appeared on the paths of the frankincense roads, including: Civilization of Ubar, where archaeological discoveries indicated that some relics of this site date back to the Neolithic period, between (5000 and 4000 BC), as well as the site of Samharam, which dates back to the period of the third century BC.
In addition, the archaeological site of Salut in the Wilayat of Bahla is one of the great sites discovered in Oman, and it dates back to the third millennium BC.
Later in history, the site of Salut witnessed the famous battle in which Malik bin Fahm Al-Azdi defeated the Persians in the first century AD. He expelled them from the areas in which they were located in order to control the trade routes and copper mining sites.
With the arrival and spread of Islam throughout Oman around the seventh century AD, Mazen bin Ghadhubabuilt the first mosque in Oman-the Al-Madmar Mosque-in the Wilayat of Samail, which is still standing to this day and rebuilt several times over the years.
After that, Oman went through unsettled periods, until the emergence of the Ya’aribastate in 1624 AD. Imam Nasser bin Murshid, and after him, Imam Sultan bin Saif, were able to build a naval force that enabled the Omanis to expel and end the Portuguese presence, which continued on large parts of the Omani coasts in the period between 1507-1650 AD. It also goes back to the period of rule of the Ya’ariba Dynasty building and expanding hundreds of Omani castles and forts. The most famous of them are Nizwa Fort, Al Rustaq Fort, Jibreen Castle, Al Hazm Castle, and Bait Al Baranda.
When the Al Busaidi Dynasty took over the reins of power in 1744 AD, Oman reached the height of its power and geographical expansion during the reign of Sultan Said bin Sultan Al Busaidi, as the influence of the Omani extension or control extended from Bandar Abbas to the coasts of East Africa. It made Oman a powerful empire that at that time controlled the maritime trade routes in the region and reached East Africa.
When Sultan Qaboos bin Said -may God rest his soul -assumed the reins of power in Oman during the period from (1970 -2020 AD), Omanhaswitnessed building of a modern and prosperous state. He formulated its foreign policy according to well-established foundations and principles that enabled Oman to be one of the safest countries in the world. Then, Sultan Haitham bin Tariq -may God preserve and protect him -assumed the reins of power in 2020 with a renewed thought focusing on building the world and human Development at the same time to continue the development process.

The Sultanate

The Sultanate of Oman is the only country in the world composed mostly of oceanic crust and rocks that originate from the Earth’s mantle. Evidence of continental drift can be witnessed in many of the unusual rock formations and topography around Oman, including the coastline around Muscat.

Geography

Oman is a wonderland for travellers with a keen interest in geology. Geological stories can be found just about anywhere, from Oman’s highest mountain, Jebel Shams, to the mega-dunes of the Empty Quarter (Rub Al Khali) and the Rock Garden at Duqm.

Culture

Oman’s culture is deeply rooted in the Sultanate’s proud heritage and history of seafaring, trading and exploration. Today, long-standing traditions blend seamlessly with modern day living, with the latest fashion and electronics brands sold alongside traditional hand-made crafts, jewellery, and even goats and cattle at souqs around the country.

People

His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said has successfully united all tribes since his ascension in 1970, ensuring that the country and its people work together to build the country. Oman has a population of just over 4 million people.

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