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A kaleidoscope of history and legends

The Sultanate of Oman is a country of breath-taking natural beauty, interwoven with a kaleidoscope of history and legends. As the oldest independent state in the Arab World, Oman has embraced modernisation and progress while retaining the core aspects of its culture and heritage – making it the perfect travel destination for those seeking an authentic Arabian experience.

Thanks to its strategic position at the tip of the Arabian Peninsula, the Sultanate has always played a major role in trade including the ancient Silk Road and Spice Routes where Oman served as a gateway for all ships traversing the Strait of Hormuz, Indian Ocean or the Arabian Sea. Al Wattih, in the Muscat region, is thought to be one of the world’s first inhabited settlements, with artefacts found to date back to the Stone Age. Later, and before the coming of Islam, Oman was dominated by the Assyrians, Babylonians and Persians – each of whom sought to use Oman’s strategic location to trade with the world. It was with the spread of Islam in Oman, around the 7th century, that the first place of worship was built. The Al Midhmar mosque in Wilayat Samail still stands to this day, having been rebuilt at various times throughout the centuries.

Over the coming centuries, the rule in Oman divided amongst a variety of dynasties, imamates and foreign powers, including the Portuguese from 1498 to 1507. Oman’s history tells the story of Omani people expelling the Portuguese to unite under Iman Nasser bin Murshid in 1624.

In the years that followed, the Sultanate expanded to include cities along the East African coast, from Mombasa to Zanzibar.

In 1798, Oman and Great Britain signed a Treaty of Friendship and, by 1891, Oman and Muscat had become a British Protectorate. For much of this period, the Sultan controlled the coast around Muscat while the Imam governed the interior from Nizwa.

It is His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said’s foresight and benevolence that has helped to secure Oman’s continued prosperity and ensured that the country remains one of the safest in the world.

The Sultanate

The Sultanate of Oman is the only country in the world composed mostly of oceanic crust and rocks that originate from the Earth’s mantle. Evidence of continental drift can be witnessed in many of the unusual rock formations and topography around Oman, including the coastline around Muscat.


Oman is a wonderland for travellers with a keen interest in geology. Geological stories can be found just about anywhere, from Oman’s highest mountain, Jebel Shams, to the mega-dunes of the Empty Quarter (Rub Al Khali) and the Rock Garden at Duqm.


Oman’s culture is deeply rooted in the Sultanate’s proud heritage and history of seafaring, trading and exploration. Today, long-standing traditions blend seamlessly with modern day living, with the latest fashion and electronics brands sold alongside traditional hand-made crafts, jewellery, and even goats and cattle at souqs around the country.


His Majesty Sultan Qaboos bin Said has successfully united all tribes since his ascension in 1970, ensuring that the country and its people work together to build the country. Oman has a population of just over 4 million people.